The contribution is a retrospective on the origin and evolution of the international legal framework against corruption. It is developed in two main sections. The first sketches the genealogy of the international legal framework regarding corruption, with a view to showing the multiple elements that have driven its advancement. The second offers a tour d’horizon of the international anti-corruption norms, by showing their main features, common elements and divergences and, ultimately, their achievements, complementing the discussion by highlighting their main deficiencies.
Corruption is a serious threat to democratic constitutionalism. Anti-corruption measures have criminalized corrupt conduct, and facilitated international cooperation to deter and prosecute crimes of corruption. This presentation will focus on a complementary question. In light of the far-reaching and often horrific consequences of corruption, should corrupt actions also be framed as human rights violations?