In Tunisia, the adoption of the 2014 Constitution was fraught with complications. The role of Islam in the Constitution, with its impact on the scope and recognition of human rights, or the choice of a semi-presidential system were among the key points of contention. Further, Tunisia is no exception to the widespread trend of the transnationalisation of constitution-making, and several external actors such as UN agencies or transnational NGOs exerted their influence on the process. This paper will examine the following questions, keeping the concept of ‘constitutional identity’ at the heart of the inquiry: How has Tunisia's constitutional identity been shaped by external actors? Has a new constitutional identity emerged after the drafting of a new democratic constitution?
In Switzerland, law-making provides mechanisms that create a favourable context among political and social actors; mechanisms that also make it possible to include the people. One of them – the popular initiative – allows minority actors to submit their proposal to the vote of the people. Based on the incrementalism model-approach, this paper intends to question the impact of the mechanism of popular initiative on the consolidation’s process of the constitutional values. Concretely, the hypothesis is that such a mechanism can redraw the portrayal of the core-values of the Constitution. First, we will outline the constitution-making and formal processes that protect the Constitution from unconstitutional amendments. Second, we will map social and political groups and their ideologies using popular initiatives. Finally, we will assess the effectiveness of these processes on particularly conflictual political and societal issues.