Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Efforts: Algeria and Bahrain

In Algeria, regional and international pressure and reputation have not been strong determinants of anti-trafficking efforts. The refusal to cede to international pressure is a result of concerns about foreign interference in its domestic affairs: while Algeria is concerned about its international reputation, this has not been enough to enhance its policies around human trafficking. In addition, the securitisation lens adopted vis-à-vis trafficking and the limited framing and understanding of the phenomenon have hindered efforts.

In Bahrain, in contrast, international reputation was a key factor motivating the government's anti-trafficking efforts. The centralisation of decision-making enabled the agency of individual officials to act as a key determinant (although with a focus on sexual exploitation). Amongst negative determinants, the country’s political culture has made it difficult for CSOs to advocate for reform without fear of marginalisation.

Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Efforts: The Philippines

The Philippines case study identified several determinants of anti-trafficking efforts in the country, including international law and international reputation, monitoring and threat of financial sanctions; the role of civil society organisations and survivor networks; funding, aid agreements and international aid; and the presence of specialised anti-trafficking institutions. While these determinants have also been identified in other case studies, the research in The Philippines also highlighted a number of context-specific determinants, including Filipino culture and values; lack of integration of anti-trafficking and labour systems; presence of women leaders in key government positions; and the 'human' aspect of anti-trafficking efforts. Lastly, COVID-19 was identified as a negative determinant, as prosecution, protection and prevention of human trafficking were negatively affected by the government's shift of resources to the COVID-19 emergency response.

Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Efforts: Chile

Chile’s advancements in its anti-trafficking policy have been the result of internal and external determinants. Most of the work and advancement of the anti-trafficking policy of Chile has laid in the shoulders of women. Consistent and strategic actions led by women-led CSOs and female public officers and politicians, have been able to trigger and sustain political will and promote awareness raising and cooperation to adopt legislation, promote capacity-building and provide assistance to trafficked persons.
The advancements have also been the result of a complex set of factors that intertwine CSOs work and influence, international law’s impact, and structural conditions such as Chile’s legalistic culture, a centralized administration, and a customary shortage of resources in “women’s issues” that has fostered innovation and coordination between institutions, promoting partnerships as the way to counterbalance the lack of resources and comply to the international obligations.

Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Efforts: Cyprus

The report focusses on the Republic of Cyprus (RoC), but it also pays attention to areas not under its effective control (TRNC). In the RoC, international law and standards are key determinants that contribute to anti-trafficking efforts – especially monitoring of compliance with international law and standards, and the government's willingness to avoid reputational damage. Amongst negative determinants, political unwillingness to commit to sustainable change and the inability of the authorities to enact this change have hindered anti-trafficking efforts.

In the TRNC, while international law has had some impact on anti-trafficking efforts, this has been indirect because of the lack of recognition of the TRNC by the international community (which has also contributed to other negative determinants, including political instability and increase in illicit economic activities). Instead, the most impactful positive determinant has been the active lobbying against trafficking by CSOs.