In representative democracies, it is important to ensure being represented adequately in the representative body, particularly in the parliament. However, women are half of the population but have yet to hold half in the parliaments in any country. In this paper, I focus on women, who have been most underrepresented. I will argue political representation should be done by ensuring gender parity in the parliament, beyond guaranteeing the minimum level of women’s representation within the parliament through gender quota; then, for gender parity in the parliament, I will explore the way of introducing an affirmative action clause in the Constitution or constitutional ground of gender parity and making parity laws; Last but not least, I will suggest eliminating the provisions prohibiting public servants and teachers from establishing and joining political parties and organisations. Such revision will allow the elite women to enter politics and to renovate party & parliamentary politics.
The various problems caused by climate change and environmental pollution, disturbance of ecosystem, and resource depletion have become raised interests in future generations. Future generations are faced with the contradiction of having to pay for the damages caused by such fatal problems produced by the present generation. Why should children and adolescents under the age of 18 be taken responsibility for problems they do not cause? To establish equity between generations, it is necessary to improve their democratic representation so that children and adolescents representing future generations, who are disproportionately excluded from the political decision process, can participate in the political decision-making process. Therefore, in this paper, as a way to strengthen the democratic representation of them, I propose to improve relevant regulations of the Public Official Election Act and the Political Parties Act.
People with disabilities selected by the political party's policy decision may be of some help to resolve the complaints of the socially underprivileged. However, their participation in politics was not active regardless of their intentions. As they did not have democratic legitimacy they had limitations in their activities as subjects of political compromise. Past members of the parliament with disabilities were inevitably excluded from fundamental institutional reform or party innovation for the socially underprivileged. In this paper, I will examine the constitutional meaning of strengthening political participation and representation of the socially weak, especially the people with disabilities, and the problems of the current electoral system and parliamentary system and then, seek an appropriate approach to improve concrete measures to strengthen political representation and participation of the people with disabilities in politics.