Withdrawing from the EU and withdrawing from the Eurozone in the Spanish constitutional system

The Spanish Constitution does not contain any provision that directly prevents the withdrawal of Spain from the EU. There is no European clause in the constitution, although references to the EU were incorporated into art. 135 due to the 2011 reform. In that article, section 2 states that “Neither the State nor the Autonomous Communities shall enter into a structural deficit beyond the limits stipulated, if applicable, by the European Union for its Member States” and the last paragraph of section 3 reads that “The volume of public debt […] shall not surpass the benchmark figure set forth in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union”. Technically, these references do not imply a mandate to remain in the European Union because they would simply be without effect if a withdrawal were to take place. However, they are a manifestation of the specific difficulty that leaving the European Union would have for Spain, being, as it is, a Member State also of the Euro Zone.