The COVID-19 pandemic has shown how countries are increasingly interdependent and vulnerable to global challenges. At the same time, this health crisis has revealed the weakness of the current structuring of international organizations in tackling global issues. In facing the current global challenges posed by the pandemic, has the international community been strengthening? Alternatively, has the sovereignty of single States been empowered?The global regulatory regime concerning the doctrine of the Responsibility to protect (R2P) can be a good case to challenge, both the State Sovereignty and the International Community in addressing the current global challenges. This contribution wants to explore the evolution of this doctrine in relation to the protection of cultural heritage from intentional destruction.