Today, cultural diversity is an undeniable mark of virtually all countries in the world. In this context, how to guarantee peaceful coexistence between different cultures? This is a discussion that is not new, but which goes back to the end of the Church’s dominance in the 16th-17th centuries, when, for the first time, the possibility of recognizing the rights of minorities was considered. In the face of this reality, tolerance is once again invoked as the best mechanism to protect minorities. However, tolerance depends on trust not only in the “other”, but also in the existence of effective institutional sanctions for the violation of these peaceful coexistence agreements. Thus, this research aimed to discuss the role of the State to create conditions in which majorities and minorities trust in the good will to live together, tolerating their difference.