The talk maps the global rise of ‘gender self-identification, commonly referred to as ‘gender self-determination. These are laws and policies allowing for self-identification of gender identity. The talk provides a comparative review of laws and policies from over a hundred jurisdictions worldwide. While gender self-determination allows for greater access tolife chances for transgender people, as it removes grave breach to bodily autonomy, it also formulates ‘gender identity’ as a private entity, separated from publicly assigned sex. Thus, gender self-determination inevitably redraws the public/private line along the contours of the transgender body, suggesting a need to examine the apparatus of assigning sex at birth and its pivotal role in exclusions of trans people and gender inequality more broadly. Addressing the distribution of life prospects along gender lines requires going back to the category of sex and critically rethinking its fundamental differentiating structures.