Transition to democracy in Poland. The unfinished process?

Institutional transition to democracy has started when Poland became democratic state ruled by law. Societal transition started with the emphasis of pluralism and equality. Institutional transition formally ended with the 1997 Constitution. Yet, democracy means also an inclusive practice of civic action and decision making. From this perspective, the end of societal transition would mean profound social and political changes. The tension affects the main promise of democracy that includes civic self-governance and efficiency of institutions. Since 1997 institutions developped but it was accompanied by civic practice in a weak and non-linear manner. The 2015 election can be perceived as a pivotal change that brought undermining of legal constitutionalism foundations. At the same time, civic self-governance has been still not realized. Thus, the authors ask whether democracy can be ensured by strengthening legal constitutionalism or by means of deliberative and participatory democracy?