The right to suffrage in the digital age

The Venice Commission points out the fundamental right of suffrage, free, universal, equal, direct, and secret as the skeleton key of political participation processes in democracy: the European electoral heritage, a sort of common standard on electoral processes. Technology has transformed the right to suffrage. Today, States like the USA, Germany, France, Italy, Norway, Spain, Estonia, and others are regulating e-voting in legal terms. Each model designs different types of e-voting, and in that sense, the Pratchett report says that e-voting must be distinguished from internet voting. The legal regulations aren’t homogeneous, some cases are binding acts, but others prefer soft rules without compulsory effects. The German Constitutional Court judgment of 2009, the Norwegian case (failed attempt of constitutional reform about e-voting), the advanced Estonian regulation or the e-voting European council recommendations of 2004 and 2017 are examples of the multiple-speed global scenario.