In the last few decades terrorist groups and the Islamic State have attacked cultural heritage not only during armed conflicts but also in ordinary contexts. The paper seeks to examine the international relations during the reconstruction of damaged cultural sites and monuments. Sovereign States have been addressing their foreign policies on cultural heritage’s protection by increasing multilateral cooperation in order to rebrand their role within the international scene. What role should cultural heritage play in reconstruction processes? What role should public law play within the fragmented cultural heritage regulation which results from multilateral cooperation? Do we need a global governance to deal with these security issues? This paper aims to answer these questions by focusing on the role of Russia in the reconstruction process of Palmyra after the Islamic State’s attack and on the role of France in Mali’s cultural heritage.