The Protection of the EU financial interests between EU and Member States: analysis of European funds in response to the pandemic emergency (RescEU, SURE, and SMEs)

The paper examines three case studies: RescEU, SURE, and Strategic investments supporting small and medium enterprises (EIB) for the green sector. These case studies represent three relevant EU actions that responded to the Covid-19 emergency first phase in the sectors of health, work, and economic support for businesses. The research questions to which the paper will try to answer are: a) What kind of actions has been financed in these sectors with EU funds? b) What kind of checks is carried out for this EU emergency funds? c) Has there already been any fraud in these areas? The paper will deal with these issues in a multilevel perspective: from the EU framework it will reach the national levels (especially the Italian, Polish and German ones). In conclusion, the paper will try to understand how the EU emergency actions were taken promptly and whether the planned controls prevented fraud.