The Oversight of Executive Policies against the Covid-19 Pandemic

Italy was the first major Western democracy to face the COVID-19 pandemic and adopt wide-ranging lockdown policies. In this unprecedented crisis, the national Executive took centre stage, but its action was subject to oversight by multiple agencies: the President of the Republic, Parliament, the judiciary, public opinion. Which was effective, and which was not? The answer points more to some deep-seated problems of the institutional system, than to the pressure of the exceptional contingency.