The lack of freedom of association in the constitutional Congress Poland

Polish elites at the first half of 19th century commonly presented the constitution of the Kingdom of Poland octroyed by Russian emperor-Polish king Alexander as the most liberal constitution of Europe directly after 1815. On the one hand, this was due to the relatively broad powers of parliament and the independence of the judiciary, on the other hand, the constitutional catalog of civil rights. Among them, however, was not mentioned freedoms of association and assembly. Meanwhile, due to the aggravating political situation in the Congress Poland, and the growing fear of Alexander under the influence of the revolutions in Europe, particularly activities of secret associations, caused the problem of the lack of freedom of association to become one of the key problems escalating the political conflict between the Polish liberal elite and the government of the Congress Poland. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the attitude of Polish liberals on the lack of freedom of association.