The issue of basic sanitation gains space among Human Rights, as there are still billions of people in the world who live in unacceptable sanitary conditions. This situation was aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, in which the difficulty of accessing these services facilitates the spread of the virus. In Brazil, the water issue is protected by a set of international, constitutional and infraconstitutional rules, constituting a multilevel regulatory system, structured in a network of independent authorities. This scenario requires a renewed hermeneutical effort on the part of the applicators, to make the exercise of such competences efficient and, thus, achieve the availability of water and sanitation for all (SDG 6, Agenda 2030). Therefore, the research problem is to verify whether multilevel federalism, seen from the perspective of combined reading and more beneficial to human beings by internal and international standards, is the most effective way to achieve the SDG 6.