The aim of the paper is to consider the role of public law provisions in IP law and their influence on more effective protection of the rightholders. In the first part, public law elements of IP law will be pointed out, with emphasis on the role of administrative procedures involving public offices which grant protection for, i.a. patents or trademarks. Then, the attention will be focused on the enforcement of intellectual property rights in criminal proceedings. The analysis will be based mainly on the EU law and a point of reference will be the provisions adopted in Polish law, in particular in relation to the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland. Furthermore, the growing role of public law regulations adopted by the EU will be emphasized, an example of which can be Regulation No. 608/2013. Finally, it will be pointed out that public law constitutes an inseparable complement to the regulation of IP law, which gives a chance for better and more effective protection of rights.