Emigrants have a significant impact not only on the political systems of cities which they arrive at but also on those of communities from where they depart. On the process of urbanization, some of the people who flow into cities become challengers against the existing political order there. In the early 20th century Japan, many of them advocated urban development through international trade and got support from middle class and labours. Interestingly, most of the new leaders equated the growth of their towns with that of the state, although the central government tried to control emigrants. This paper aims to examine how international migrants affect the political order in local communities where they depart and the policy of the central government.