Robot emancipation, or what future challenges the legal personality must face

Artificial intelligence constitutes challenges for fundamental rights (FRs). In modern times and legal systems, the legal personality of human beings is unquestionably recognized. While human life is the central idea behind FRs, the legal status cannot be limited to the individual, as organizations can be recognized as legal persons. Social and political debates take place on legally acknowledging other entities (nature, animals), broadening the range of rights-holders. The issue of the legal status of robots and artificial intelligence also fits into this pattern. Can legal personality be interpreted in the case of intelligent machines (objects)? Threats posed by technology to other areas of FRs are already with us, though the sentient and intellectually (and perhaps eventually morally) superior machines may never come to pass. Our goal is to seek answers by mapping the foundations of dogmatics of FRs and set short-, medium-term, and long-term perspectives.