Rights of Noncitizens at the Dawn of Globalization: How the 19th Century Japan Changed the World

Our panels have demonstrated that the treatment of noncitizens is an acute issue in the day of globalization. It could be more so at the dawn of globalization. The very fact that the international exchange was limited necessitated a special device for exchange; there was a huge gap of “civilization” between the west and non-west while the latter were usually less prepared to host residents from the former. The device was consular jurisdiction embedded within the territories of the non-west, under which a westerner had a privilege to be judged by the consuls from his/her country. Consulates were the nexus of the west and non-west that stitched our planet. Japan was the forerunner to abolish the consular jurisdiction. This talk explores how Japan achieved it and created new political and legal landscape of the world, with another difficulty to treat noncitizens at the top.