Responses to Accountability Deficits of the Contemporary State: Towards New Forms of People’s/Peoples’ Governance

This paper strives to approach institutional trust by way of exploring new tools of people’s/peoples’ control and participation in matters that are commonly attributed to the State. Such quasi delegation of State powers opens up debates on State accountability towards those subjected to it, legitimacy of its main functions and organs and the institutionalisation and formalisation of hitherto State-dominated forms of decision-making limited to parliamentary assemblies. Commonly these phenomena arise where inter-institutional checks become dysfunctional, where constitutions fail to respond to social change or parliaments ignore people’s/peoples’ voices. Recent experience in Andean States best captures the new meaning gained by grassroots formations and people’s/peoples’ governance that either actively make use of the participatory instruments of newly founded post-colonial States or struggle towards constitutional reform by means of forms of democratic control.