Several institutions of direct democracy – primarily popular initiatives – are widespread interpreted as the strongest weapon of the distrustful people against the political elite. From this point of view one of the most important questions of these institutions’ design is the minimum number of the voters enough for initiating a referendum. Irrespectively of the sources of initiative – constitutions, voters, political parties or governments – it is also enlightening how do the national legal systems handle the decreasing level of political participation. How do they determine referendum’s turnout requirements: are there quorums, quotas of valid votes enough for a legally binding result?
Our 2020 Annual Conference was scheduled to be held at the University of Wrocław in Poland on July 9-11, 2020.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ICON·S Executive Committee has decided to postpone our 2020 Conference to 2021. Our next Annual Conference will take place from July 8-10, 2021, in Wrocław, Poland.
Procedural details regarding the organization of the 2021 Conference will follow in the months ahead.Join ICON•S