Port and harbour was the first place where a person encounters someone else who has a different background. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Japanese government abolished its so-called closed-door policy and started trading with foreign countries. One of the biggest issues in the negotiations between Japan and western powers was who and how governed the brand-new opened port towns. In contrast to the cases of Chinese open ports, the self-governing body of the foreign settlements in Japan did not last. Therefore, regulations which were issued by both Japanese governments and foreign representatives were the bases of administrations in these towns. This paper aims to examine what kind of regulations were needed and how they went through changes in Japan's open ports, particularly in the earliest stages.
Our 2020 Annual Conference was scheduled to be held at the University of Wrocław in Poland on July 9-11, 2020.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the ICON·S Executive Committee has decided to postpone our 2020 Conference to 2021. Our next Annual Conference will take place from July 8-10, 2021, in Wrocław, Poland.
Procedural details regarding the organization of the 2021 Conference will follow in the months ahead.Join ICON•S