Why do some countries in Latin America have strong protections of collective rights of indigenous people and others do not? What is the role of indigenous mobilization to enhance the protection of collective rights? According to several authors in the field of Law and Social Sciences, the primary factor that has created the successful inclusion and implementation of collective rights in several legal instruments is indigenous mobilization. However, this relationship is not straightforward if it observes what happens in diverse countries of the region. I argue that indigenous mobilization is a factor to consider in some cases, but it is not necessary and sufficient to protect collective rights. To have an impact in the level of inclusion of collective rights the mobilizations need to be a robust national political actor to influence the system or if it is not strong enough, it needs to have the support from other anti-systems movements or political parties to make changes.