No vote= no voice? Political Rights of ‘Aliens’ under the ECHR

Democracy is premised on the existence of a polity with members by whom (and for whom?) democratic discourse takes place. Hence, the ECtHR's determination that democracy is the only ECHR-compatible system of governance does not in and of itself resolve the tension between, OTOH, limitations of participation in democratic self-governance, and, OTOH, demands of (universal) human rights. In turn, the ECHR is silent on citizenship criteria, reserving it to the state’s domain notwithstanding its profound and direct implications for political participation. This paper considers the function of &relationship between, political communication rights & electoral rights. If CoE states may apply a citizenship qualification to participation in (some or all of) their electoral processes, does that weaken or strengthen entitlement of aliens to political communication rights falling short of decision-making? Absent a vote, should aliens' voice be limited, too, given its (intended) effects on voters?