Multilevel trust in a multilevel system: Exploring judicial trust in the EU

European judicial politics literature is increasingly focusing on trust as a new mechanism for enhancing the cooperation and compliance of national courts with the CJEU and EU law. Exploring the role of trust in a multilevel judicial system such as the EU, however, requires looking at trust from a multilevel perspective. This includes (1) trust between domestic courts in a national judicial hierarchy and (2) trust between domestic courts (at different levels) and the CJEU. Building on the literature on multi-level trust where trust at one level influences trust at another level, this paper explores how can trust on different levels (that is, trust within and between different levels of judicial hierarchy) limit or enhance judicial cooperation and compliance with EU law. The paper is based on a mixed-method research design that combines survey results (N=450) and the results of in-depth interviews (N=31) with Slovenian and Croatian national judges.