Multi-tiered (multinational) systems in the African continent: the rationale behind constitutional asymmetries

Contemporary federal theory indicates that recent federal systems are fragmenting and multinational states that experience asymmetrical responses to internal differences. The more comprehensive approach is needed to research asymmetrical arrangements as a mechanism for diversity accommodation. The African continent proves to be especially interesting for research. In the last decades a number of African countries have embraced federalism; and there is still no comprehensive explanation for these developments. In the first place, this complicates the understanding of the rationale behind constitutional asymmetries. In addition, it blurs an explanation as to why some of the African states employed constitutional asymmetries and others did not. Therefore, the paper aims to prove the association between (asymmetrical) multi-tiered multinational systems and constitutional asymmetry, and address comparative correlations among multi-tiered multinational systems in the African states.