(Judicial) dialogue, EU law on non-discrimination and “Hate” related provisions: synchronization of hard law and soft law instruments or multi-level governance.

Judicial dialogue has sought to render EU anti-discrimination law internally and externally consistent, meaning that it has not only synchronised hard and soft law measures, but also addressed inconsistencies with various international and domestic legal sources pertaining to equal treatment. Article 21 EU Charter has been used by national courts for : a) reinforcing the salience of the anti-discrimination directives; b) maintaining the favourable status quo; and/or c) amplifying the significance of relatively new concepts and catalyse social change. Policy makers have utilised “soft law” instruments such as guidelines, which have for some time now operated on the margins of traditional time-consuming and often futile legislative processes. The Europeanisation of national public policies and the transformation of EU anti-discrimination law occurs at the junction of these two mechanisms that both depend on dialogue and exchange in a multilevel governance structure.