Is the general principle of equality a false friend to the specific prohibition of discrimination on suspect grounds?

Many legal systems distinguish between general guarantees of equality on the one hand and specific prohibitions of discrimination on suspect grounds on the other. While the former targets arbitrariness or irrationality, the latter focus on decisions which track deep historical and/or current disadvantages and targets oft-repeated, systematic behaviour and practices
This paper follows up on an empirical study on Czechia, which showed that the general principle of equality is the pre-eminent doctrine there. It thenlooks comparatively at further jurisdictions including the EU, Germany, India and South Africa, and explores the question of whether the established general principle of equality can act as a false friend to ground-related anti-discrimination law. The paper suggests that when anti-discrimination rights are seen merely as an extension of a general requirement of equality, they can be vulnerable to being interpreted narrowly and lose effectiveness.