International Judicial Independence and Accountability: Two sides of the same coin?

In an effort to reconcile the tension between judicial independence and accountability, these principles have been presented as the two sides of the same coin. It is generally accepted that accountability also applies to ICs, but, as it will be shown, the instruments to hold judges accountable in that ambit are limited, given the specificities of the international sphere. In that regard, what constraints on ICs might be justified in terms of accountability without putting their independence at risk? In this paper, I will analyse three aspects regarding the accountability principle: 1) the standards for judicial conduct and the actors that can hold international judges to account, which tend to be set forth in the corresponding statutes of international judges and codes of conduct; 2) the requirement to “give reasons” for explicitly justify the adjudicative power, which is inherent to the judicial function; and 3) the principle of transparency as applied to the activity of ICs.