Informal democracy in Hungary

In the recent decades two constitutions were enacted in Hungary and none of them proved to be successful in building institutional democratic structures in society. The ’1989 Constitution’ aimed at safeguarding the conditions for the transition and to be temporary. The ’Fundamental Law’ was enacted by the unilateral votes of the governing majority in Parliament in 2011 and functioned as cementing its political preferences. None of these documents involved the people in the constitution-making process and did not lead to genuinely functioning ways of democratic participation in the exercise of public power. Therefore, one may ask, whether the constitution can be considered to be in close relation with the democratic functioning of society. Due to the institutional democratic erosion, the democratic initiatives seem to be stronger in informal structures (actions and relations not specified by formal law) of the society.