In situ investigative training in a global era: enabling de facto international prosecutors investigating core international crimes

This paper makes the case for in situ investigative training for future de facto international prosecutors in the context of immediate, large-scale political violence. It explores how private non-state actors have previously adopted the practices of the offices of the international prosecutor, in order to close the accountability gap for core international crimes, including torture, first left by the local judiciary and in the absence of an international criminal tribunal with jurisdiction over the alleged crimes (including in the case of Pinochet (Chile), Habre (Chad) and Anwar R. (Syria)). It shows how they informed evidence in criminal prosecution cases in foreign courts exercising universal jurisdiction, in each case broadly following a Nuremberg model. The paper draws on Hartian notions of law, combined with a conceptual framework underscoring community of practice and international practices.