How to measure the rule of law violations during emergency situations?

It is a widespread view in the academic literature that nationalist populists prefer emergencies because in those situations people are willing to give strong empowerment to the government or give up certain rights if they feel their lives, health or property are threatened and expect the central government to avert the threat. Such situations are used by populists to build, consolidate, reinforce or perpetuate their own power. This paper examines the criteria for assessing whether or not a political system is using its exceptional power for its own benefit.
The paper then uses these criteria to evaluate the particular case of Hungary, which often seen as a model country for nationalist populism, where there has been a state of emergency for two years. The final part draws conclusions and tries to explore whether the Hungarian experience can be generalised.