The emergence of new genetic knowledge and the spread of genetic interventions require new laws or even the development of a new theory of human rights. But how can we understand human rights on the molecular and the genetic level? Can we stretch our existing notions of human rights to our genes, our biological and genetic beings or do we need a new catalogue of human rights? How should we interpret human dignity, privacy, and the principle of non-discrimination when human beings, as complex bio-social identities, are to be protected by human rights instruments, rather than persons? Can this new form of bio-constitutionalism revitalize human rights in order to protect individuals and their biological makeup from further commodification? Can genetics be regarded as a catalyst for development of contemporary human rights? And how can we avoid the return of eugenic and reductionist trends by human rights?