Gender Equality in the Parliament: From Quotas to Parity Principle

In representative democracies, it is important to ensure being represented adequately in the representative body, particularly in the parliament. However, women are half of the population but have yet to hold half in the parliaments in any country. In this paper, I focus on women, who have been most underrepresented. I will argue political representation should be done by ensuring gender parity in the parliament, beyond guaranteeing the minimum level of women’s representation within the parliament through gender quota; then, for gender parity in the parliament, I will explore the way of introducing an affirmative action clause in the Constitution or constitutional ground of gender parity and making parity laws; Last but not least, I will suggest eliminating the provisions prohibiting public servants and teachers from establishing and joining political parties and organisations. Such revision will allow the elite women to enter politics and to renovate party & parliamentary politics.