Frontex actions: out of control? The complexity of composite decision-making procedures

Frontex’s operations can affect fundamental right and should thus be subject to efficient control. The paper aims at analyzing whether sufficient legal (or administrative) remedies are in place to protect individuals harmed by an operation coordinated by the agency. The paper will first shed the light on the actions coordinated by Frontex, illustrating in this way the composite nature of the decision-making procedures and operations, and the opacity thereof. In a second part, the paper will analyze the legal implications of Frontex’s operations from a national, European and international perspective, so as to determine whether these jurisdictions can offer adequate judicial protection to harmed individuals. As an alternative solution, possibilities of administrative review will be developed. The case-study of ‘hotspots’ in Greece and in Italy will be studied so as to test the hypothesis developed before in an even-more complex environment with more actors involved.