Frontex actions: out of control? The complexity of composite decision-making procedures

The discussion on potential human rights violations has been part of Frontex’s history. This debate only increased the need for efficient control to be put in place. This contribution aims at analyzing whether sufficient legal (or administrative) remedies are in place to protect individuals harmed by an operation coordinated by the agency. It will first examine the actions coordinated by Frontex, illustrating in this way the composite nature of the decision-making procedures and operations, and the opacity thereof. It will analyze the legal implications of Frontex’s operations from a national, European and international perspective, to determine whether these jurisdictions can offer adequate judicial protection to harmed individuals. As an alternative solution, to palliate the lack of legal remedies available, possibilities of administrative review will be developed. The case-study of ‘hotspots’ in Greece and in Italy will be studied so as to test the hypothesis developed before.