Freedom of assembly in the constitutional Congress Poland

Polish elites in the first half of the 19th century commonly presented the constitution of the Kingdom of Poland octroyed by Russian emperor-Polish king Alexander as the most liberal constitution of Europe directly after 1815. On the one hand, this was due to the relatively broad powers of parliament and the independence of the judiciary, on the other hand, the constitutional catalogue of civil rights and liberties. Among them, freedom of assembly was not mentioned. However, the constitution, referring to the old Polish tradition, guaranteed a significant political role for sejmiks and communal assemblies. Thus, the issue of freedom of association was considered in the context of the freedom of institutionalized political assemblies, which performed not only constitutional functions but also constituted forums for public debate.