Framework agreements and the constitution-building process: lessons learnt from the Ohrid Framework Agreement

The Ohrid Framework Agreement (OFA) in the Republic of North Macedonia is an important example of a peace agreement which implements multiculturalism on constitutional level by establishing a complex power-sharing mechanism between the ethnic communities. The OFA was not only brokered by the international community, but the EU and the US signed it as guarantors, therefore classifying the OFA as a hybrid, internationalised peace agreement. The paper focuses on two key issues: the peacemaking and constitution-building process. Regarding the former, it explores the dual track approach adopted by the international mediators and the interplay between political, security and legal component during the negotiation process. Regarding the latter, the paper analyses the agreement’s legal provisions, focusing on constructive ambiguity and dual interpretation. As the OFA addresses both identity and resource issues, studying it provide valuable insights about the complexities of peacemaking process.