Foreign Election Interference and Cyber-Resilience: Canada’s Multi-Faceted Approach

This paper focuses on Canada’s efforts to confront the challenge of foreign election interference. It makes two interrelated claims. First, it argues for a multi-faceted approach that employs a suite of complementary tactics including (1) direct measures to target foreign interference specifically; (2) indirect measures to counter disinformation and fake news; and (3) coordinated cross-government strategy for cyber threats and security. It outlines and evaluates Canada’s efforts to inoculate the electoral process from foreign interference. Second, the paper argues that despite the limitations of these measures, the combined and interactive effects of a multi-faceted approach provide helpful protections against some of the harms of foreign interference while also signaling the importance of electoral integrity thereby shoring up the public trust that is indispensable to sustaining a democratic order.