This presentation focuses upon the relationship between fiscal federalism and economic inequalities in the european area, with a particular attention to the functioning of financial equalisation mechanisms. At first, I will highlight how the stricter butgetary rules adopted during the economic crises in Europe have contributed to an increase of the economic differences among territories of the same State. To solve this problem the intervention of the central State has become fundamental both in regional States and in federal States, despite the attempt to give responsabily to local authorities as well. In fact, the central State has the task to guarantee the economic unity and a common standard of protection for fundamental rights. At this point, I will compare the equalisation mechanisms adopted in various european States and their functioning with the aim to identify which one could be considered a suitable instrument to face the problem of the economic inequalities.