Effective environmental constitutionalism

The effective protection of environment is one of the key challenges faced by contemporary public law. Environmental constitutionalism is a concept that applies to both international law and national constitutions. The presentation will focus on the effectiveness of environmental constitutionalism at the level of national law. Firstly, the subject of considerations will be the very concept (and criteria) of the effectiveness in this respect. Secondly, factors contributing to the effectiveness of constitutional environmental protection standards will be discussed: the constitutional role of both substantive and procedural environmental rights, structural environmental constitutionalism (which is of particular importance in federal states) and last but not least introduction of specialized bodies such as courts specialized in environmental law or specialized monitoring and/or enforcing institutions (i.a. the Ombudsman for Future Generations).