Does Illiberal Democracy Exist?

Illiberalism can be understand as a critical reaction to liberalism. The subject of illiberal criticism are both liberal theories and liberal societies. As Stephen Holmes argues, illiberals or antiliberals are unwilling to examine liberal theories and liberal societies separately, because they assume that liberal societies perfectly embody liberal ideas, therefore failing of liberal societies follow directly from the inadequacy of liberal principles. This paper will discuss the current state of play of both illiberal theories and illiberal societies in East Central Europe.