Discussion

The panelist will discuss the hypotheses on constitutional asymmetry and multinationalism introduced by the chair: (1) Constitutional asymmetry emerges from political asymmetry. (2) Multinationalism, in the form of variations in identity, is not the exclusive but a determining factor for constitutional asymmetry. (3) The correlation is stronger when the divide based on identity is reinforced with congruent political asymmetries of another nature. (4) Privileged status is attributed to identity markers rather than territory-based entities. (5) Factors that facilitate symmetrisation or further asymmetrisation processes are, amongst others, the presence of competing national groups, the presence of non-competing non-distinct groups, the dynamics of strongly divided fragmenting states, internal dynamics created by asymmetries.