Differentiation and Democracy in the Economic and Monetary European Union

The governance of the European Union (EU) has been significantly changed by the multiple crises that it has endured over the last decade. This has often led to increased differentiation. However, at least in the economic and monetary union, differentiated governance has been reduced in recent times, thanks to the adoption of positive intervention programmes such as the Next Generation EU and SURE which apply to all the MS. We analyse the three phases in which different types of governance were legally established as a reaction to the crises that occurred over time, highlighting the various legal solutions and the consequences for the institutional fragmentation among the MS and the democracy of the EU. Furthermore, we illustrate the pros and cons of some institutional solutions bearing in mind both the need for a more efficient and reactive union in the face of difficulties and a clearer allocation of responsibilities while ensuring greater legitimacy.