Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Efforts: The Philippines

The Philippines case study identified several determinants of anti-trafficking efforts in the country, including international law and international reputation, monitoring and threat of financial sanctions; the role of civil society organisations and survivor networks; funding, aid agreements and international aid; and the presence of specialised anti-trafficking institutions. While these determinants have also been identified in other case studies, the research in The Philippines also highlighted a number of context-specific determinants, including Filipino culture and values; lack of integration of anti-trafficking and labour systems; presence of women leaders in key government positions; and the 'human' aspect of anti-trafficking efforts. Lastly, COVID-19 was identified as a negative determinant, as prosecution, protection and prevention of human trafficking were negatively affected by the government's shift of resources to the COVID-19 emergency response.