In Algeria, regional and international pressure and reputation have not been strong determinants of anti-trafficking efforts. The refusal to cede to international pressure is a result of concerns about foreign interference in its domestic affairs: while Algeria is concerned about its international reputation, this has not been enough to enhance its policies around human trafficking. In addition, the securitisation lens adopted vis-à-vis trafficking and the limited framing and understanding of the phenomenon have hindered efforts.
In Bahrain, in contrast, international reputation was a key factor motivating the government's anti-trafficking efforts. The centralisation of decision-making enabled the agency of individual officials to act as a key determinant (although with a focus on sexual exploitation). Amongst negative determinants, the country’s political culture has made it difficult for CSOs to advocate for reform without fear of marginalisation.