Constitutionalism under attack: In search of effective defense mechanisms

Constitutionalism is real only when its core commitments are respected and fully protected. During a period of constitutional reforms, the problem of protecting the constitution becomes more relevant. Precisely because the constitutional principles regulate political relations, establishing the rules of the political process, in some cases they become the object of pressure from some political forces.

There are different mechanisms that constitutional systems worldwide have devised in order to defend the most fundamental constitutional commitments of democratic states. This paper will analyze the experience of several “fragile” democracies (including Russia, but not only Russia) and understand if the existing legal mechanisms are effective when there is a strong will and political resources to undermine the foundations of constitutionalism.