Constitutional Identity: Constitutional Amendments or Judicial Interpretation

Constitutional identity denotes in its internal aspect how the constitution expresses its identity based on historical, political and legal developments that took place in the past. In its external aspect, constitutional identity concerns the way in which the constitution aspires to consolidate its supremacy over international and supranational (EU) law. These facets of constitutional identity at times overlap, so in the experience of Lithuania, Latvia and some other newly re-established European states The constitutional identity of Lithuania has been clearly reflected through the interpretation by the Constitutional Court. Against this background, this report will analyse and compare the expressions of constitutional identity and will reveal how internal constitutional identity overlaps with its external counterpart, with respect to the openness of the Constitution towards EU integration and EU law. The experience of Hungary, Moldova and Russia will also be addressed..