Constitutional Democracy in Hungary and Poland

Constitutional democracies in Hungary and Poland have turned into illiberal systems. Certain non-legal reasons for effective successful transformation to an illiberal state, such as the emergence of populist rhetoric and morality, the clear lack of political self-restraint, and the inability or unwillingness of the people to form a strong and capable civil society, or to raise their voice against extreme views or resist an aggressive and clearly unfounded political campaign, could have been pre-determined and influenced by the historical and socio-psychological particularities of the nations in question. The historically- and psychologically-determined national and constitutional identities of Hungarians and Poles might not be apt to nurture liberal constitutionalism in the long term.