Compulsory Covid-19 vaccination: a “new” look to an “old” legal and bioethical dilemma

The authorisation of the first Covid-19 vaccines at the end of 2020 came together with efforts to roll out mass vaccination campaigns to end the pandemic. More than two years after, only 56,17% of the population in the World is fully vaccinated and vaccination rates remain uneven throughout the World. Although those differences are partially explained by unequal access to vaccines, they are also linked to vaccine hesitancy.
Low vaccination rates have sparked debates on how to increase vaccine uptake, with some countries resorting to compulsory vaccination policies. In the EU, several countries have decided to impose a vaccination duty to different age groups (Austria, Greece, Italy) or categories of workers (Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Latvia, Estonia, Hungary), whereas others have linked access to public spaces to vaccination or recovery from Covid-19 (Germany, France, Italy, Latvia). This paper proposes to explore those policies and discuss the legal problems surrounding them.